1. Minear WL. A classification of cerebral palsy. Pediatrics 1956;18:841.
2. Dunin-Wasowicz D, Rowecka-Trzebicka K, Milewska-Bobula B, et al. Risk factors for cerebral palsy in very low birth weight infants in the 1980s and 1990s. J Child Neurol 2000;15:417–420.
3. Fuchs Z, Blumstein T, Novikov I. Morbidity, comorbidity, and their association with disability among community-dwelling oldest-old in Israel. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1998;53:447–455.
4. Lackland DT, Bachman DL, Carten TD. The geographic variation in stroke incidence in two areas of the southeastern stroke belt: the Anderson and Pee Dee Stroke Study. Stroke 1998;29:2061–2068.
5. Sacco RL, Boden Albala B, Gan R. Stroke incidence among white, black and Hispanic residents of an urban community: the Northern Manhattan Stroke Study. Am J Epidemiol 1998;147:259–268.
6. Trumble TE, Van Heest A. Stroke, traumatic brain injury, and cerebral palsy. In: Trumble TE, ed. Principles of hand surgery and therapy. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 2000:361–375.
7. Katz R. Presynaptic inhibition in humans: a comparison between normal and spastic patients. J Physiol 1999;93:379–385.
8. Van Heest AE, House J, Putnam M. Sensibility deficiencies in the hands of children with spastic hemiplegia. J Hand Surg 1993;18:278–281.
9. Van Heest AE, House JH, Cariello C. Upper extremity surgical treatment of cerebral palsy. J Hand Surg 1999;24:323–330.
10. Dahlin LB, Komoto-Tufvesson Y, Salgeback S. Surgery of the spastic hand in cerebral palsy. Improvement in stereognosis and hand function after surgery. J Hand Surg 1998;23:334–339.
11. Hoffer MM. The use of the pathokinesiology laboratory to select muscles for tendon transfers in the cerebral palsy hand. Clin Orthop 1993;288:135–138.
12. Hoffer MM, Perry J, Melkonian G. Postoperative electromyographic function of tendon transfers in patients with cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 1990;32:789–791.
13. Kozin SH, Keenan MH. Using dynamic electromyography to guide surgical treatment of the spastic upper extremity in the brain-injured patient. Clin Orthop 1993;288:109–117.
14. Nogen AG. Medical treatment for spasticity in children with cerebral palsy. Child Brain 1976;2:304–308.
15. Hines AE, Crago PE, Villian C. Functional electrical stimulation for reduction of spasticity in the hemiplegic hand. Biomed Sci Instrum 1993;29:259–266.
16. Carmick J. Clinical use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation for children with cerebral palsy. Part II: upper extremity. Phys Ther 1993;73:514–527.
17. Steinbok P, Reiner A, Kestle JR. Therapeutic electrical stimulation following selective posterior rhizotomy in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy: a randomized clinical trial. Dev Med Child Neurol 1997;39:515–520.
18. Beck AJ, Gaskill SJ, Marlin AE. Improvement in upper extremity function and trunk control after selective posterior rhizotomy. Am J Occup Ther 1993;47:704–707.
19. Loewen P, Steinbok P, Holsti L, et al. Upper extremity performance and self-care skill changes in children with spastic cerebral palsy following selective posterior rhizotomy. Pediatr Neurosurg 1998;29:191–198.
20. Fehlings D, Rang M, Glazier J, et al. An evaluation of botulinum-A toxin injections to improve upper extremity function in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. J Pediatr 2000;137:300-303,331–337.
21. Autti-Ramo I, Larsen A, Peltonen J, et al. Botulinum toxin injection as an adjunct when planning hand surgery in children with spastic hemiplegia. Neuropediatrics 2000;31:4–8.
22. Wall SA, Chait LA, Temlett JA, et al. Botulinum A chemodenervation: a new modality in cerebral palsied hands. Br J Plast Surg 1993;46:703–706.
23. Van Heest AE. Applications of botulinum toxin in orthopaedics and upper extremity surgery. Tech Hand Upper Extrem Surg 1997;1:27–34.
24. Van Heest AE. A prospective evaluation of treatment of the upper extremity in spastic hemiplegia using botulinum toxin. In: Ogino T, ed. Congenital differences of the upper limb. Kyoto: Yamagata University School of Medicine; 2000:307–320.
25. Mital MA, Sakellarides HT. Surgery of the upper extremity in the retarded individual with spastic cerebral palsy. Orthop Clin North Am 1981;12:127–141.
26. Strecker WB, Emanuel JP, Dailey L, et al. Comparison of pronator tenotomy and pronator rerouting in children with spastic cerebral palsy. J Hand Surg 1988;13:540–543.
27. Sakellarides HT, Mital MA, Lenzi WD. Treatment of pronation contractures of the forearm in cerebral palsy by changing the insertion of the pronator radii teres. J Bone Joint Surg 1981;63:645–652.
28. Van Heest AE, Murthy NS, Sathy MR, et al. The supination effect of tendon transfer of the flexor carpi ulnaris to the extensor carpi radialis brevis or longus: a cadaveric study. J Hand Surg 1999;24:1091–1096.
29. Inglis AE, Cooper W. Release of the flexor-pronator origin for flexion deformities of the hand and wrist in spastic paralysis. J Bone Joint Surg 1966;48:847–857.
30. White WF. Flexor muscle slide in the spastic hand: the Max Page operation. J Bone Joint Surg 1972;54:453–459.
31. Tonkin MA, Hughes J, Smith KL. Lateral band translocation for swan-neck deformity. J Hand Surg 1992;17:260–267.
32. Littler JW. The finger extensor mechanism. Surg Clin North Am 1967;47:415–432.
33. Swanson AB. Surgery of the hand in cerebral palsy and the swan neck deformity. J Bone Joint Surg 1960;42:951–964.
34. House J, Gwathmey F, Fidler M. A dynamic approach to the thumb-in-palm deformity in cerebral palsy. J Bone Joint Surg 1981;63:216–225.
35. Matev I. Surgery of the spastic thumb-in-palm deformity. J Hand Surg 1991;16:346–348.
36. Filler BC, Stark HH, Boyes JH. Capsulodesis of the meta-carpophalangeal joint of the thumb in children with cerebral palsy. J Bone Joint Surg 1976;58:667–670.
37. Goldner JL, Koman LA, Gelberman R, et al. Arthrodesis of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb in children and adults: adjunctive treatment of thumb-in-palm deformity in cerebral palsy. Clin Orthop 1990;253:75–89.
38. Manske PR. Redirection of extensor pollicis longus in the treatment of spastic thumb-in-palm deformity. J Hand Surg 1985;10:553–560.
39. Nylanders G, Carlstrom C, Adolfsson L. 4.5 year follow-up after surgical correction of upper extremity deformities in spastic cerebral palsy. J Hand Surg 1999;24:719–723.
40. Eliassion AC, Ekholm C, Carlstedt T. Hand function in children with cerebral palsy after upper-limb tendon transfer and muscle release. Dev Med Child Neurol 1998;41:284–285.
41. Van Heest AE, Sathy M, Schutte L. Cadaveric modeling of the pronator teres rerouting tendon transfer. J Hand Surg 1999;24:614–618.
42. Mital MA. Lengthening of the elbow flexors in cerebral palsy. J Bone Joint Surg 1979;61:515–522.
43. Zancolli EA. Structural and dynamic bases of hand surgery, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1968.
44. House JH, Gwathmey FW. Flexor carpi ulnaris and the brachioradialis as a wrist extension transfer in cerebral palsy. Minn Med 1978;61:481–484.
45. McCue FC, Honner R, Chapman WC. Transfer of the brachioradialis for hands deformed by cerebral palsy. J Bone Joint Surg 1970;52:1171–1180.
46. Green WT. Tendon transplantation of the flexor carpi ulnaris for pronation-flexion deformity of the wrist. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1942;75:337–342.
47. Green WT, Banks HH. Flexor carpi ulnaris transplant and its use in cerebral palsy. J Bone Joint Surg 1962;44:1343–1352.
48. Omer GE, Capen DA. Proximal row carpectomy with muscle transfers for spastic paralysis. J Hand Surg 1976;1:197–204.